Around 56,000 people — from girls as young as 12, to women in their 40s — were sent to the 18 institutions investigated, where some 57,000 children were born, according to the report.
One in seven of those children (15%) didn’t survive long enough to leave the homes, yet no alarm was raised by the State over the high mortality rates, even though it was “known to local and national authorities” and was “recorded in official publications,” the report found.
Prior to 1960, mother and baby homes “did not save the lives of ‘illegitimate’ children; in fact, they appear to have significantly reduced their prospects of survival,” it said.
The report called the infant mortality rates the most “disquieting feature of these institutions.”
Speaking on Tuesday, Taoiseach Micheál Martin said that the report “opens a window onto a deeply misogynistic culture in Ireland over several decades,” and that the report “reveals significant failures of the state and of society.”
The report, which runs to more than 2,800 pages, was released just days after its key findings were leaked to a national newspaper — compounding the pain and anguish of survivors who have waited years for the final report — and who had been promised a first view of it by the Minister of Children.
Susan Lohan, co-founder of the Adoption Rights Alliance and a member of a dedicated survivors group appointed to advise the government, told CNN on Tuesday that the leaked extracts of the report, seen on Sunday, show that the Irish government may seek to “trivialize” the human rights abuses that took place on a “massive scale” inside of these homes.
During her time at the Sean Ross Abbey mother and baby home, Lee said that she was “deprived” of her liberty, independence and autonomy, and was “subject to the tyranny of the nuns,” who told mothers daily that they were to atone for their sins by “working for our keep and surrendering our children to the nuns for forced adoption.”
Lee, whose story was told in an Oscar-nominated movie starring Judi Dench, added that she was “taunted” by the nuns during a difficult labor, who she says told her that the “pain was a punishment for my promiscuity.”
The commission’s final report reported that this practice was not unusual.
For many survivors and advocate groups, there is concern that the report fails to vindicate their experience.
Lohan told national broadcaster RTE that the institutions were a “form of social engineering,” and that the “state and church worked in concert to ensure that women — unmarried mothers and girls who were deemed to be a threat to the moral tone of the country” were “incarcerated behind these very high walls to ensure that they would not impact or offend public morality.”
On Tuesday, Minister for Children, Equality, Disability, Integration and Youth Affairs Roderic O’Gorman said: “The report makes clear that for decades, Ireland had a stifling, oppressive and brutally misogynistic culture, where a pervasive stigmatization of unmarried mothers and their children robbed those individuals of their agency and sometimes their future.”
Survivors are expected to receive an official State apology from Martin, the Irish Prime Minister, on Wednesday.
But for many, that apology will not be enough.
Lohan told CNN that she disagrees with the planned state apology, saying that no apology should be issued until survivors have had a chance to read and digest the Commission’s findings, which could take many weeks.
She also suggested that an apology should be the first of a series of several, noting that the commission’s investigations only covered 18 institutions, while some 180 sites were part of an Irish system that facilitated child neglect, premature death, forced adoptions, enforced disappearances, enforced labor, the stripping of identities, the falsification of state documents and the forging of mothers’ consents.
The report does not appear to fully address the allegations of forced or illegal adoptions, only stating that “many allegations have been made that large sums of money were given to the institutions and agencies in Ireland that arranged foreign adoptions. Such allegations are impossible to prove and impossible to disprove.”
Tens of thousands went through other state-run hospitals and private institutions and “suffered the same fate,” she said.
Having since had a brief glimpse of the report’s summary on Wednesday, Lohan said that survivors were left feeling underwhelmed by the apparent lack of attention to the major topics and that some survivors felt their evidence had been disbelieved as the Commission had dismissed certain allegations, citing lack of evidence.
The question as to why the homes were established in the first place appears to have been glossed over, some advocate groups said, undercutting the trauma endured by mothers and their children.
While the report documented the testimony of women who detailed torture and beatings, it said that “there is no doubt that women in mother and baby homes were subjected to emotional abuse but there is very little evidence of physical abuse and no evidence of sexual abuse.”
Mary Harney, who was born in the Bessborough home and was later sent to an industrial school in Cork, said a first read of its findings had left her feeling that the report was “for the most part, in favor of the perpetrators.”
“They say that the conditions in the homes were bad — and they pick out various homes — but they say overall there was no evidence of systematic abuse,” Harney said.
“What would it take (for them) to classify something as gross abuse?” she asked.
The report also does not appear to address the testimony of some survivors who have said that senior members of the Catholic Church forced them to enter the homes, in addition to their family members.
Speaking to reporters on Wednesday, Martin said that “in principle I think the religious orders concerned should make a contribution” to a proposed redress scheme.
The legislation will also apply to “any other site where intervention is reasonably required,” according to the Ministry of Children and Youth Affairs.
Some 973 children died at, or near, the Tuam mother and baby home, according to the commission, which revealed that some of their remains had been found inside a decommissioned sewage tank.
Only 50 records of burials at Tuam have been located; others “may have been lost or destroyed over the years,” according to a March 2019 interim report.
A total of 900 babies born at or admitted to hospitals near County Cork’s Bessborough home died in infancy or early childhood.
The commission also found that between 1920 and 1977, the bodies of more than 950 children who had died in some of the homes were sent to university medical schools for “anatomical studies.”
Survivors have long hoped that the commission would reveal more about allegations of arbitrary detention, cruelty and neglect, forced adoption and vaccine trials that went on inside the homes, as well as hold wrongdoers to account.
And crucially, they also hoped it would help them to access their personal records, including information about missing relatives and babies buried in unmarked graves.
Critics of the law had successfully argued that sealing the commission’s records was illegal under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), an EU directive which gives individuals the right to access their data.
Now, survivors’ rights groups are warning that the government — and state agencies including the child and family agency, Tusla — are still restricting survivors’ access to their own records.
In a statement to CNN, Tusla put the issue of access back on the government, saying that “the absence of legislation to deal with the provision of information will continue to be a source of great anxiety for people, and the resolution of this issue is beyond the reach of Tusla.”
“We recognize the hurt and trauma experienced by those who are affected by the Commission’s report into Mother and Baby Homes, that are understandably searching their identity,” the statement said.
In the meantime, the agency is still routinely denying survivors — particularly adopted people — access to their own personal information, their birth certificates, their identities, and even their ethnicities, Lohan says.
“These abuses, they didn’t end in 1998 when the last of the dreadful places closed.”