Chronic leg ulcers of all types feature a significant inflammatory component for which medical compression therapy is absolutely the best form of anti-inflammatory therapy, Elena Conde Montero, MD, PhD, asserted at the virtual annual congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
In addition to delving into the finer points of compression therapy, she offered other clinical pearls for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. These included the use of autologous punch grafting to reduce pain as well as promote healing, when to employ adjunctive negative pressure therapy, and the benefits of liquid sevoflurane for highly effective topical analgesia during wound cleansing and debridement.
“If no contraindications exist, compression therapy is the best antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory treatment for all leg ulcers, not only venous leg ulcers,” according to Conde, a dermatologist at Infanta Leonor University Hospital in Madrid.
The list of absolute contraindications to compression treatment is brief, as highlighted in a recent international consensus statement. The expert writing panel named only four: severe peripheral artery disease, the presence of an epifascial arterial bypass, severe cardiac insufficiency, and true allergy to compression material.
Compression therapy provides multiple salutary effects. These include reduced capillary filtration of fluids to tissue, decreased swelling, enhanced tissue remodeling, better lymphatic drainage, reduced inflammatory cell counts, and increased arterial flow.
“This means that people with mild arterial disease will benefit from active compression because perfusion will improve,” Conde said.
Similarly, leg ulcers secondary to pyoderma gangrenosum will benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of compression therapy in conjunction with standard immunotherapy, added the dermatologist, who coauthored a recent publication by the European Wound Management Association entitled “Atypical Wounds: Best Clinical Practices and Challenges.”
Four broad types of compression therapy are available: compression stockings, short-stretch bandages, multicomponent bandage systems, and self-adjusting compression wrap devices. The best clinical outcomes are achieved by individualized selection of a compression method based upon patient characteristics.
Short-stretch, low-elasticity bandages – such as the classic Unna boot loaded with zinc paste and topical corticosteroids – are well suited for patients with large leg ulcers. These bandages feature high working pressures during muscle contraction. They also provide low resting pressures, which is advantageous in patients with peripheral artery disease. The major disadvantage of short-stretch bandages is the need for frequent dressing changes by a nurse or other trained professional, since the compression is quickly lost as an unwanted consequence of the welcome reduction in swelling.
Multicomponent bandage systems feature two to four layers of bandages of differing stiffness, as well as padding material and in many cases pressure indicators. These bandages can often be worn for up to a week without needing to be changed, since they maintain adequate pressure long term. “These are very easy to use by nonexperts,” Conde noted.
A caveat regarding both short-stretch bandages and the multicomponent bandage systems: before applying them, it’s important to pad at-risk areas against injury caused by high pressures. These high-risk areas include the Achilles tendon, the pretibial region, and the lateral foot.
Self-adjusting compression systems are comprised of strips of short-stretch, low-elasticity fabric, which wrap around the leg and are fixed with Velcro closures. Conde hailed these devices as “a great innovation in compression therapy, without doubt.” Their major advantage is ease of application and removal by the patient. They are best-suited for treatment of small ulcers in patients who find it difficult to use compression stockings because of obesity or osteoarthritis, in patients who can’t tolerate such stockings because they have peripheral artery disease and the stockings’ high resting pressure is uncomfortable, or in individuals ill-suited for compression bandages because they lack adequate access to nursing care for the required frequent dressing changes.
Compression stockings are a good option for small ulcers. It’s easier for patients to wear shoes with compression stockings and thereby engage in normal everyday activities than with short-stretch bandages. A tip: Many patients find it arduous to don and remove a high-compression stocking that achieves the recommended pressure of 30-40 mm Hg at the point of transition between the Achilles tendon and the calf muscle, but the same effect can be achieved by overlapping two easier-to-use lower-compression stockings.
This simple, cost-effective outpatient procedure was first described as a means of enhancing wound healing 150 years ago. The method involves utilizing a scalpel, curette, or punch to obtain a series of thin split-thickness skin grafts that contain epidermis and dermis down to the superficial papillary dermis. The grafts, usually harvested from the anterior thigh, are placed on the wound. This is followed by at least 5 days of local pressure and rest to promote graft uptake.
Sequential punch grafting is an excellent option for particularly challenging chronic ulcers, including Martorell hypertensive ischemic leg ulcers and other arteriolopathic ulcers in the elderly.
“Sequential punch grafting of wounds is very common in our clinics, especially for wounds that lack perfect grafting conditions,” Conde said.
She considers Martorell hypertensive ischemic leg ulcers to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. The Martorell leg ulcer is an exceedingly painful, rapidly progressive ischemic lesion, or bilateral lesions, with inflamed irregular margins. The disorder is caused by obstruction of subcutaneous arterioles in the absence of signs of vasculitis, and generally occurs in older individuals who have had well-controlled hypertension for many years. Diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and peripheral artery disease are common comorbid conditions. The most common form of treatment – bioactive dressings in a moist environment – produces unsatisfactory results because it doesn’t address the inflammatory process.
Conde and coworkers have published the full details of how they achieved complete healing of Martorell hypertensive ischemic leg ulcers 3-8 weeks after punch grafting in three affected patients, all of whom presented with pain scores of 10/10 refractory even to opioid analgesics. The punch grafting was preceded by 15 days of topical corticosteroids and low-elasticity compression bandages in order to create adequate granulation tissue in the wound bed, which had the added benefit of achieving a 2- to 3-point reduction in pain scores even before the surgical procedure.
The pain-reducing effect of punch grafting isn’t as well appreciated as the wound-healing effect. Conde was first author of a recent study in which investigators systematically measured pain reduction in 136 patients with hard-to-heal leg ulcers of various etiologies treated with punch grafting. Nearly three-quarters of those who presented with painful ulcers were pain free after punch grafting, and the rest experienced greater than 70% pain reduction.
Pain suppression wasn’t dependent upon the percentage of graft uptake in this study. That’s because, as long as the wound isn’t overcleaned during dressing changes, even grafts that haven’t attached to the wound will release growth factors that promote wound healing, Conde explained.
Adjunctive Negative Pressure Therapy
Portable vacuum-based negative pressure therapy devices are easy to use as a means to promote punch graft uptake. Negative pressure is best employed as an adjunct to punch grafting in suboptimal wound beds, longstanding ulcers, in patients with previous graft failure, or in challenging anatomic locations, such as the Achilles tendon or ankle. Conde has found the combination of punch grafting and negative pressure therapy especially helpful in patients with clinically inactive pyoderma gangrenosum.
Topical Sevoflurane for Analgesia
Most of the literature on topical sevoflurane for ulcer care has been published by Spanish researchers, but this form of analgesia deserves much more widespread use, according to Conde.
Sevoflurane is most often used as a gas in general anesthesia. In liquid form, however, it not only has a rapid, long-lasting analgesic effect when applied to painful leg ulcers, it also promotes healing because it is both antibacterial and a vasodilator. So before performing a potentially painful ulcer or wound cleaning, Conde recommended protecting perilesional skin with petroleum jelly, then irrigating the ulcer site with liquid sevoflurane. After that, it’s advisable to wait just 5-10 minutes before proceeding.
“It takes effect in much less time than EMLA cream,” she noted.
In one study of 30 adults aged over age 65 years with painful chronic venous ulcers refractory to conventional analgesics who underwent ulcer cleaning supported by topical sevoflurane at a dose of roughly 1 mL/cm2 of ulcer area every 2 days for a month, Spanish investigators documented onset of analgesic effect in 2-7 minutes, with a duration of 8-18 hours. The researchers found that the use of backup conventional analgesics ranging from acetaminophen to opioids was diminished. Side effects were limited to mild, transient itching and redness.
Conde reported having no financial conflicts of interest regarding her presentation.
This article originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.