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Can Supplements Boost Your Immunity This Winter?


Barry Fox, MD, clinical professor of infectious disease,  University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

Harri Hemilä, MD, PhD, adjunct professor, Department of Public Health,  University of Helsinki, Finland.

Simin Nikbin Meydani, DVM, PhD, senior scientist and director, Nutritional Immunology Lab, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging , Tufts University.

Tracey J. Smith, PhD.

John P. Richie Jr., PhD, professor of public health sciences and pharmacology,  Penn State University College of Medicine,  Hershey, PA.


Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health: “Nutrition and Immunity.”  


Annals of Internal Medicine: “Association Among Dietary Supplement Use, Nutrient Intake, and Mortality Among U.S. Adults.”

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold.”

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes.”

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Vitamin C supplements and the risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort study in women.”

The Journal of the American Medical Association: “Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial.”

British Medical Journal: “Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.”

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism: “Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.”

Horticultural Science: “Patterns of Variation in Alkamides and Cichoric Acid in Roots and Aboveground Parts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.”

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: “Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.”

Journal of the Royal Medical Society: “Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.”

British Medical Journal: “Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.”

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition: “Oral supplementation with liposomal glutathione elevates body stores of glutathione and markers of immune function.”

Journal of International Medical Research: “Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Elderberry Extract in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Virus Infections.”

Journal of General Internal Medicine: “Elderberry Extract Outpatient Influenza Treatment for Emergency Room Patients Ages 5 and Above: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.”

European Cytokine Network: “The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.”

Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease: “Lung under attack by COVID-19-induced cytokine storm: pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic implications.”

Planta Medica: “Immunmodulatory and Antiproliferative Properties of Rhodiola Species.”

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases: “Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.”

The Journal of the American Medical Association: “Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold.”

National Kidney Foundation: “Family History of Kidney Stones? Watch Those Megadoses of Vitamin C.”

Mayo Clinic: “What is vitamin D toxicity? Should I be worried about taking supplements?”

ScienceDaily: “Adequate zinc eases pneumonia in elderly, study finds,” “Zinc.”



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